ANIMAL WELFARE ACT
(excerpts from section 2143)
Enacted 1966, Amended 1970, 1976, 1985, 1990, 2002
Definition of "Animal"
(g) The term ``animal'' means any live or dead dog, cat, monkey (nonhuman primate mammal), guinea pig, hamster, rabbit, or such other warmblooded animal, as the Secretary may determine is being used, or is intended for use, for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition purposes, or as a pet; but such term excludes (1) birds, rats of the genus Rattus, and mice of the genus Mus, bred for use in research, (2) horses not used for research purposes, and (3) other farm animals, such as, but not limited to livestock or poultry, used or intended for use as food or fiber, or livestock or poultry used or intended for use for improving animal nutrition, breeding, management, or production efficiency, or for improving the quality of food or fiber. With respect to a dog, the term means all dogs including those used for hunting, security, or breeding purposes.
(1) The Secretary shall promulgate standards to govern the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of animals by dealers, research facilities, and exhibitors.
(2) The standards described in paragraph (1) shall include minimum requirements--
(A) for handling, housing, feeding, watering, sanitation, ventilation, shelter from extremes of weather and temperatures, adequate veterinary care, and separation by species where the Secretary finds necessary for humane handling, care, or treatment of animals; and
(B) for exercise of dogs, as determined by an attending veterinarian in accordance with the general standards promulgated by the Secretary, and for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.
(3) In addition to the requirements under paragraph (2), the standards described in paragraph (1) shall, with respect to animals in research facilities, include requirements--
(A) for animal care, treatment, and practices in experimental procedures to ensure that animal pain and distress are minimized, including adequate veterinary care with the appropriate use of anesthetic, analgesic or tranquilizing drugs, or euthanasia;
(B) that the principal investigator considers alternatives to any procedure likely to produce pain or distress in an experimental animal;
(C) in any practice which could cause pain to animals-
(i) that a doctor of veterinary medicine is consulted in the planning of such procedures;
(ii) for the use of tranquilizers, analgesics, and anesthetics;
(iii) for presurgical and postsurgical care by laboratory workers in accordance with established veterinary medical and nursing procedures;
(iv) against the use of paralytics without anesthesia; and
(v) that the withholding of tranquilizers, anesthesia, analgesia, or euthanasia when scientifically necessary shall continue for only the necessary period of time;
(D) that no animal is used in more than one major operative experiment from which it is allowed to recover except in cases of--(i) scientific necessity; or (ii) other special circumstances as determined by the Secretary; and
(E) that exceptions to such standards may be made only when specified by research protocol and that any such exception shall be detailed and explained in a report outlined under paragraph (7) and filed with the Institutional Animal Committee.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees
(b)(1) The Secretary shall require that each research facility establish at least one Committee. Each Committee shall be appointed by the chief executive officer of each such research facility and shall be composed of not fewer than three members. Such members shall possess sufficient ability to assess animal care, treatment, and practices in experimental research as determined by the needs of the research facility and shall represent society's concerns regarding the welfare of animal subjects used at such facility. Of the members of the Committee--
(A) at least one member shall be a doctor of veterinary medicine;
(B) at least one member--
(i) shall not be affiliated in any way with such facility other than as a member of the Committee--
(ii) shall not be a member of the immediate family of a person who is affiliated with such facility; and
(iii) is intended to provide representation for general community interests in the proper care and treatment of animals; and
Inspections by the Committees
(3) The Committee shall inspect at least semiannually all animal study areas and animal facilities of such research facility and review as part of the inspection--
(A) practices involving pain to animals, and
(B) the condition of animals, to ensure compliance with the provisions of this Act to minimize pain and distress to animals. Exceptions to the requirement of inspection of such study areas may be made by the Secretary if animals are studied in their natural environment and the study area is prohibitive to easy access.
(4)(A) The Committee shall file an inspection certification report of each inspection at the research facility. Such report shall—....
(5) The inspection results shall be available to Department of Agriculture inspectors for review during inspections. Department of Agriculture inspectors shall forward any Committee inspection records which include reports of uncorrected deficiencies or deviations to the Animal and Plant Health inspection Service and any funding Federal agency of the project with respect to which such uncorrected deficiencies and deviations occurred.
Reduce, Replace, Improve
(e) The Secretary shall establish an information service at the National Agricultural Library. Such service shall, in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine, provide information--
(1) pertinent to employee training;
(2) which could prevent unintended duplication of animal experimentation as determined by the needs of the research facility; and
(3) on improved methods of animal experimentation, including methods which could--
(A) reduce or replace animal use; and
(B) minimize pain and distress to animals, such as anesthetic and analgesic procedures.
(f) In any case in which a Federal agency funding a research project determines that conditions of animal care, treatment, or practice in a particular project have not been in compliance with standards promulgated under this Act, despite notification by the Secretary or such Federal agency to the research facility and an opportunity for correction, such agency shall suspend or revoke Federal support of the project. Any research facility losing Federal support as a result of actions taken under the preceding sentence shall have the right of appeal as provided in sections 701 through 706 of Title 5, United States Code.