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Embedded Reporters in Iraq - Negative















Enlistment Papers
Mitchell, Greg
Editor & Publisher; 2/24/2003, Vol. 136 Issue 8, p34, 1p
This article talks about how they are only encouraging embedded reporters because they want positive comments towards the military. The government is encouraging this because they want the military to look good.

An Erie tale in Baghdad.
Bedway, Barbara
Editor & Publisher; Feb2007, Vol. 140 Issue 2, p6-7, 2p, 2c
Article takes a look at the experiences of journalist Scott Waldman while covering stories in Baghdad, Iraq. First account story of a terrorist bomber. He cites that a journalist has to live, eat and sleep next to people he is writing about and has to keep it in mind while he is writing.

Fifteen journalists die while covering war in Iraq
Thorn, April
News Media & the Law; Spring2003, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p7, 3p, 6bw
Article talks about the death of several reporters in Iraq as of May of 2003 and some information about the journalists.

Framing the Iraq War: A Comparison of Favorable Coverage and Media Framing by Embedded and Washington Reporters
Frensley, Nathalie
Conference Papers -- International Studies Association; 2004 Annual Meeting, Montreal, Cana, pN.PAG, 0p
The whole point of foreign corresponds is to increase the freedom of the press. “During the Gulf War, reporters and media critics criticized the battlefield theater government press pool system, arguing that it constrained media freedom, resulting in pro-war and pro-administration coverage.” Various articles were analyzed to conduct favorability measures.

From Basra to Baghdad: Interim Military Lessons from Iraq
Mills, Greg
Defense & Security Analysis; Sep2003, Vol. 19 Issue 3, p285, 7p
This article focuses on things that need to be limited in the Iraq War. Some of the things that need to be limited are limits of air power and limitations of embedded journalism. These aspects of the war were decided to be limited because of events that were countered in Basra and Nasiriya.

Hard Numbers
Columbia Journalism Review; Mar/Apr2006, Vol. 44 Issue 6, p17-17, 1/4p
Describes the statistics of journalists. Giving examples of journalists that were arrested, and gives detailed numbers for them. “8, 5, 4, months, respectively, that three Iraqi journalists working for Reuters were held in Abu Ghraib without charges before being released this winter.” Talks about the problems in Iraq when journalists are put into danger.

A High Price For Bad News Charles Glass
Glass, Charles
New Statesman; 1/8/2007, Vol. 136 Issue 4824, p17-17, 2/3p
“The article focuses on embedded war correspondents in Iraq. The article discusses several reporting teams that suffered injuries or died while embedded with U.S. troops, including cameraman Paul Douglas and sound engineer James Brolan. The International Federation of Journalists tallied 155 "murders, assassinations and unexplained deaths" of journalists in 2006.”

High-Stakes Testing
Elfers, Steve
News Media & the Law; Summer2004, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p10-10, 1p
“This paper presents the author's opinion on the decision of the U.S. government to prohibit news coverage of caskets returning to the Dover Air Force Base.” Pictures of coffins evoke powerful and negative emotions toward war and the government. Journalists have a responsibility to not turn away from the truth, but the Department of Defense and the limits they set on publication of photos make it difficult for reporters.

“How We Performed”: Embedded Journalists’ Attitudes and Perceptions towards Covering the Iraq War
Fahmy, Shahira Johnson, Thomas J
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly; Summer2005, Vol. 82 Issue 2, p301-317, 17p
“A survey of embedded journalists suggests an overall positive perception of embedded reporting.” Embedded stories were also different in that their attitudes toward war, which was correlated with perceived performances as well.

The "I" of embedded reporting: an analysis of CNN coverage of the "Shock and Awe" campaign
Fox, Julia R., and Byungho Park
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media; 50.1 (March 2006): 36(16).
This is a study that compares differences in diction between “nonembedded reports” and embedded reports during the "Shock and Awe" campaign’s CNN coverage. This also examines “context in which personal pronouns were used by embedded reporters.“ Embedded reporters used more personal pronouns than their non embedded counterparts.

Infoganda' in Uniform
Zewe, Charles
Nieman Reports; Fall2004, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p78-80, 3p, 1bw
This article focuses on the fact that embedded reports have seemingly upbeat and sometimes misleading accounts of the Iraq War. “These infoganda missions, if successful, could give the U.S. Department of Defense a taxpayer-financed links to every home in the U.S. Both operations follow the scrapping of the Department of Defense's plans for an Office of Strategic Influence to spread pro-U.S.. stories in foreign countries.” The US sets up propaganda offices during war to shape public opinion. “There are also questions about the intent and reach of these media operations. The U.S. Army's Digital Video and Imagery Distribution System recommends engaging the news media and key audiences with aggressive and forward-leaning tactics.”

Inside View
Baker, Peter
American Journalism Review; May2003, Vol. 25 Issue 4, p36, 4p, 3c
Talks about reporting coming from a journalists incorporated “with U.S. 1st Marine Expeditionary Force at Camp Commando in Kuwait during the war in Iraq.”
Explanations of the true situations coming out of the Operations Center. “Limitation of the embedding process; Debate on embedded reporting and unilateral reporting.”

Iraq's Endangered Journalists
Fadhi, Ali
New York Times; 9/6/2006, Vol. 155 Issue 53694, pA19-A19, 1/2p
This editorial looks at the violence against journalists in Iraq.

The Issues
Greenblatt, Alan
CQ Researcher; 10/15/2004, Vol. 14 Issue 36, p855-862, 7p
“Focuses on media bias issues in the U.S; Perceived bias on news coverage of critical events; Probable causes of media bias; Criticism on political press; Media credibility; Changes in the media; Audience's fracturing on partisan lines; Impact of more news outlets on better dissemination of information; Sufficiency of the press' coverage on the Iraq war.”

Letting Loose the Images of War
Penrod, Grant
News Media & the Law; Summer2004, Vol. 28 Issue 3, p7-9, 3p, 4bw
This article discusses the governmental policy of banning certain war photographic images which would probably lead to negative public opinion. “The Pentagon's ban on media coverage of the coffins brought to Dover Air Force Base in Delaware looks to many journalists like an effort to control reporting that might bring a negative image to war.”

The Many Shades of Journalism Ethics
Mohl, Jeff D
Quill; Apr2003, Vol. 91 Issue 3, p3, 1p
“Discusses the issue of journalism ethics in the coverage of the 2003 war in Iraq. Question on whether the embedded journalists can cover the war objectively; Engagement of the journalists in self-censorship; Ethics of self-censorship.”

A Matter of Time
Lori Robertson
American Journalism Review; Aug/Sep2006, Vol. 28 Issue 4, p40-47, 8p
“The article explores how Time magazine put together its groundbreaking account of the alleged shooting of civilians by U.S. Marines in Haditha, Iraq.” Explains the incident as how Iraqis described it, and also describes Time magazine’s struggle to agree on sending an embedded reporter to the incident.

Maybe Companies Should Have Embedded Reporters, Too
Veale, Jack
Business Week; 4/28/2003 Issue 3830, p20-20, 1/9p
“A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Critical Supplies...Are unaccounted For," by Frederick Balfour in the April 7, 2003 issue.”

Media Casualties
Christian Century; 4/19/2003, Vol. 120 Issue 8, p5, 1p
“Narrowness of the reports of the journalists embedded with the U.S. military; Admission of CBS news anchor Dan Rather that the news media are engaged in self-censorship for fear of being viewed as unpatriotic”

Media, Government Duel in ‘Perfect Storm'
Johnson, Peter
USA Today; 02/13/2007.
This newspaper article deals with the Iraq war and the apprehensions that come with war and reporting.

Media Messaging and Conflict
Hastings, Tom H.
Peace Review; Oct-Dec2005, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p389-395, 7p
“In 1991, during the original Gulf War with Bush pere, CNN and Peter Arnett ruled the airwaves, broadcasting classically objective journalism from the heart of Baghdad.” Compares when Bush Senior was in office and how he dealt with the war versus 2003 when George W. Bush was in office and the Pentagon took over the media. Explains that all reporters must be embedded because the unembedded reporters could be killed.

The Media and the Military
Kaplan, Robert D.
Atlantic Monthly; Nov2004, Vol. 294 Issue 4, p38-40
This article discusses the effect the military has had on the media in Iraq. The hundreds of journalist embedded in Iraq were largely influenced by the armed forces. Many journalists felt obligated to report information satisfactory to the interests of the armed forced, rather than objective information. This conflict is explained and criticized for several reasons.

Media Troop Withdrawal
Ritea, Steve
American Journalism Review; Dec2003/Jan2004, Vol. 25 Issue 8, p14-15, 2p, 1c
Explains why the media has pulled many reporters out of Iraq at the end of 2003. “Primary reason behind the decision; Total number of journalists embedded with the military; Status of conducting media coverage in Iraq.”

Media Will Put Reporters' Safety First
Rose, Matthew
Nelson, Emily
Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition; 3/12/2003, Vol. 241 Issue 49, pB1, 2p, 4c
This article speaks of the fight for many media centers to pull their reporters out of Baghdad for safety. “Comments from Leonard Downie Jr., executive director of the Washington Post Co.'s 'Washington Post'; Discussion of the safety of 'embedded' reporters who travel with military units.”

Mind Games
Daniel Schulman
Columbia Journalism Review; May/Jun2006, Vol. 45 Issue 1, p38-49, 12p
“The article focuses on the role of retired U.S. Air Force Colonel Sam Gardiner in monitoring the news coverage of the Operation Iraqi Freedom since its launch in March 2003.” “As the campaign wore on, and he monitored the press coverage” and analyzed public statements made by the military and came to realize that was a series of misinformation where not all the facts were being presented.

Misperceptions, the Media, and the Iraq War
Kull, Steven, Clay Ramsay, and Evan Lewis
Political Science Quarterly ;Winter2003/2004, Vol. 118 Issue 4, p569-598, 30p.
This article focuses on the Iraq war, specifically the media and the deceptions of the view of the media. It includes American public support, and different polls and policies of the media.

More Skewed, Very Biased
MacArthur, John R
Maclean's; 4/7/2003, Vol. 116 Issue 14, p34, 2p, 1c
“Interviews John R. MacArthur, president and publisher of 'Harper's' magazine and author of the 1992 book 'Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War.'” He claims news of war is biased and pro-military and discusses “Opinion concerning military censorship versus self-censorship.”

News agencies concerned for safety of journalists in Iraq.
Schaeffer-Duffy, Claire
National Catholic Reporter; 10/28/2005, Vol. 42 Issue 2, p10-10, 3/4p
“Reports that Reuters News Agency and the Committee to Protect Journalists has expressed concerns on the impact of detentions and accidental shootings on the journalists ability to operate in Iraq.”

Not "in-Bed"
Nesmith, Susannah A.
American Journalism Review; Apr/May2004, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p63-65, 2p
“Presents a letter to the editor in response to an article on embedded reporters which appeared in the February/March 2004 edition of 'American Journalism Review.'"

Of Many Things
Martin, James
America; 4/7/2003, Vol. 188 Issue 12, p2-2, 1p
How the television plays a role in Iraq and how the media shapes our thoughts of war

An Oral History Tells Stories Seldom Heard During the War
Kavotsky, Bill
Nieman Reports; Winter2003, Vol. 57 Issue 4, p77-80, 4p
The article talks about the experiences of a correspondents,Bill Kavotsky and timothy Carlson, during the invasion of Iraq in 2003. These corespondents talked about the emotional cost of the war. Most of these reporters try to stay neutral but people were telling what was really happening and the story seemed one sided. Article also talks about how many journalists were dying and the causes of their deaths.

Out of Reach
Ricchiardi, Sherry
Malik, Alia
American Journalism Review; Apr/May2006, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p24-31, 8p
The article discusses the working condition for journalists in Iraq as of April 2006. And what it is like in Iraq.

Out of embed, but facing trauma?
Strupp, Joe
Bartholomew, Rafe
Editor & Publisher; 4/21/2003, Vol. 136 Issue 16, p4, 1/3p, 3c
“Discusses the experience of 'The Christian Science Monitor' embedded reporter Ann Scott Tyson while covering the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. Examples of the dangers witnessed by Tyson while in Iraq; Description of the trauma experienced by Tyson; Remarks from Roger Simpson, director of the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma at the University of Washington.

The Psychological Hazards of War Journalism
Anthony Feinstein.
Nieman Reports; Summer2004, Vol. 58 Issue 2, p75-76, 2p, 1bw
This article discusses an examination of how embedded journalists respond to what they witness, focusing on the psychological hazards of war journalism. “Notable was the high lifetime rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression in the war journalists' group.” Other problems with embedding journalists are discussed as well.

Pentagon Widens its Battle to Shape News of Iraq War
Cloud, David S. and Thom Shanker
New York Times; 11/3/2006, Vol. 156 Issue 53752, pA17-A17, 1/4p.
This article focuses on the Pentagon’s efforts to shape the Iraq war reports to give a brighter outlook on the Iraq war. It discusses the program aimed at changing the media outlook as well as how this message will be conveyed.

Public Relations and Propaganda in Framing the Iraq war: A Preliminary Review
Hiebert, Ray Eldon
Public Relations Review; Sep2003, Vol. 29 Issue 3, p243, 13p
“Techniques of public relations and propaganda were an essential part of the 2003 war in Iraq.” The government chose what issues and stories were published and embedded journalists emphasized visual and electronic media promoted in a pro-war manner. “All strategies at the White House and Pentagon seem designed for more public relations and propaganda in future wars.”

Reporters in the Cross Hairs
Enders, David
Dawood, Hiba
Progressive; Sep2005, Vol. 69 Issue 9, p31-34, 4p
This editorial talks about the many attitudes towards journalists in Iraq.

The Story Of A War
Kaplan, Robert D.
Atlantic Monthly (1072-7825); Nov2003, Vol. 292 Issue 4, p161, 3p
The authors journey with the military and his argument that this is no longer a job for military historians.

Toothless Watchdogs
Rieder, Rem rrieder@ajr.umd.edu
American Journalism Review; Aug/Sep2004, Vol. 26 Issue 4, p6-6, 1p
This article presents the author's views on the U.S. news coverage of scandals involving U.S. military presence in Iraq. The key to success was the traditional private investigative reporting. Rather than rely on top officials, reporters Warren Strobel and Jonathan Landay gathered sources at a variety of levels in the intelligence community, the uniformed military and the diplomatic corps. “Some attribute the media's long delay in covering the Iraqi prisoner abuse by U.S. troops at Abu Ghraib camp to reluctance to question the administration on matters of national security.” Cases of abuse held between October and December 2003, but the story did not leak until television network CBS aired its photographs in April 2004.

The Truth, the whole truth
Leo, John
U.S. News & World Report; 10/6/2003, Vol. 135 Issue 11, p59-59, 1p, 2c
Article focuses on the role of embedded reporters in Iraq and the lack of truthful.

They're in the Army Now
Zinsmeister, Karl
National Review; 4/21/2003, Vol. 55 Issue 7, p32-34, 3p, 1bw
The author of this article does not trust the caliber of journalists that are embedded with the military. Even though these reporters may not be the best, the first hand reporters of the situations are being reported.

To Tell The Truth
Krugman, Paul krugman@nytimes.com
New York Times; 5/28/2004, Vol. 153 Issue 52863, pA21-A21, 1/6p
Article talks about how the New York Times and the organizations' self-criticism during the Iraq war and their failure to report negative information about U.S. President George W. Bush .

Truth, Death, and Journalism: We Kill Journalists, Don't We?
Niman, Michael I.
Humanist; May/Jun2005, Vol. 65 Issue 3, p23-26, 4p
The abstract says that the article “Takes former CNN Chief News Executive Eason Jordan at his alleged statement that U.S. forces in Iraq have targeted unembedded journalists.” Event when Jordan made the alleged statement; Events showing that coalition forces directly killed journalists during the first three weeks of the 2003 U.S.-British invasion of Iraq; “Assessment of the credibility of a report investigating U.S. troop's killing of two European journalists.”

Truth and Trust: In Iraq War Coverage, They've Become Casualties.
Christenson, Sig
saddamscribe@yahoo.com Nieman Reports; Summer2005, Vol. 59 Issue 2, p6-11, 6p
Discusses the authors experience with propaganda while working in Iraq. Also touches on whether embedded reporting is sometimes politically driven. “Vietnam-era antagonism between the media and military is back. It is especially strong in the Pentagon, where some I know among the press corps long ago lost faith in the integrity of Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and other top civilians.”

TV War Coverage in Iraq Could Have Been Better
Sheehan, Daniel B., U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings
U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings; Oct2003, Vol. 129 Issue 10, p73-73, 1p, 1c
This article talks about how a naval aviator who has followed the Iraq war because he has a son participating in it. He observed that most of the embedded reporters were not focusing on the war but they were focusing on themselves. Two reporters, Geraldo Rivera and Peter Arnett, crossed the line between reporters and newsmakers and were fired.


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