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AD 711. Moorish incursion into Spain begins.
Ninth century AD. Decline of classic Maya culture.
c.AD 1000. Norsemen reach North America.
1200s. Moors expelled from Portugal. Moors in Spain restricted to the Emirate of Granada.
Late 1200s Catalan voyages to north west Africa, and possibly a Genoese visit to the Canaries.
1320-50. Tenochtitlan-Tlatelolco, the Aztec capital, begins to rise.
1393. Castilian exploration of Canaries.
Early 1400s. First caravels built in Iberian peninsula.
1415. Portuguese capture of Ceuta in North Africa.
1420s. Portuguese settle Madeira.
late 1420s. Formation of the Triple Alliance, the basis of Aztec imperial expansion.
1427. Definitive discovery of the Azores by the Portuguese.
1440s. Start of Inca imperial expansion.
1444. Portuguese reach Cape Verde, westernmost point of Africa.

1450

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1451. Birth of Columbus in Genoa.
1460s. Substantial settlement of Azores by Portugal.
1469. Marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon.
1479. Treaty of Alcáçovas: Castile's rights to the Canaries, and Portugal's to the Azores, Cape Verdes, and Madeira, mutually accepted.
1484. Birth of Bartolomé de las Casas in Seville.
1487. Dedication of the Great Temple in Tenochtitlan.
1488. Bartolomeu Dias rounds southern Africa, for Portugal.
1492. Spanish conquest of Granada; expulsion of Jews from Spain; Columbus's first voyage to America.
1493. Columbus's second voyage: settlement of Hispaniola.
1494. Treaty of Tordesillas: Castile and Portugal partition between them the exploration and exploitation of the world (Portugal, east of c.50 degrees west; Castile, west of that meridian).
1496. Foundation of Santo Domingo, as capital of Hispaniola.
1497-9. First Portuguese voyage to and from India around south of Africa, led by Vasco da Gama.
1498. Columbus's third voyage: first certain European sighting of a South American coast.

1500

1500s (i.e. 16th century): century of military conquest in Spanish America, followed by complex process of domination of American lands and peoples (tools of domination include bureaucratic administration, Christian evangelization, Spanish (and Portu guese) exploration and mapping of the Americas, organization of native labor, imposition of taxes on native people). Other important processes and trends in 1500s: beginning of race mixture, great decline of native populations (up to 90+percent, mainly b ecause of introduced disease), beginning of imports of African slaves.

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1500. World map of Juan de la Cosa. Pedro Alvares Cabral, commanding second Portuguese fleet bound for India, touches on coast of Brazil.
1501-2. East coast of South America surveyed by Amerigo Vespucci.
1501-2. Portuguese exploration of Brazilian coast.
1501-38. Rome grants to the Spanish monarchy patronage and other controls over the Church in America.
1502-4. Columbus's fourth voyage: east coast of Central America surveyed.
1502-9. Administration of Nicolás de Ovando, "founding" governor of Hispaniola.
1503. Casa de Contratación founded in Seville.
1503. First sugar mill built in Hispaniola.
1504. Death of Isabella.
1504. First French ship on Brazilian coast.
1506. Death of Columbus.
1507. World map of Martin Waldseemüller, showing "America."
1508. From Hispaniola, Juan Ponce de León takes Puerto Rico.
1509. From Hispaniola, Juan de Esquivel takes Jamaica, and Alonso de Hojeda leads an expedition to the Venezuelan and Colombian coast.
1511. First Spanish town on the American mainland: Santa María la Antigua de Darién. Conquest of Cuba, from Hispaniola. Audiencia established at Santo Domingo, the first in America. Sermon of Antonio de Montesinos, O.P., in Santo Domingo, criticizing colonists' treatment of Indians.
1512. Arrival of first bishop (of Caparra, Hispaniola) in America. Laws of Burgos, the first code regulating Spanish treatment of Indians.
1513. Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain. Vasco Núñez de Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific.
1513. See of Darien created.
1516. Death of Ferdinand of Aragon. Accession to the Spanish throne of Charles I (from 1519, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor).
1516. Las Casas named Protector of the Indians.
1516. Fortified Portuguese trading post founded at Pernambuco; first indication of sugar cultivation in Brazil.
1517-18. Spanish reconnaissance from Cuba of eastern Mexican coast.
1519. Cities of Panama and Veracruz founded.
1519-21. Hernán Cortés conquers the Aztecs for Spain.
1519-22. First circumnavigation of globe, by Magellan's expedition.
1522. Papal letter Omnimoda entrusts evangelization of natives In Spanish America to regular clergy.
1523-6. Cortés is official governor of New Spain (i.e. Mexico).
1524. Arrival of first bureaucrats (treasury officials) in Mexico. Foundation of the Council of the Indies.
1526. See of Tlaxcala, the first in Mexico, created.
1527. First Audiencia established in Mexico City (refounded with new judges in 1530). See of Mexico City created.
1528-30. Cortés in Spain. He is named Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca.
c.1529. First sugar mill built in Mexico. Treaty of Zaragoza: Tordesillas line projected into the Pacific at c.145 degrees east.
c.1530. First silver strikes in Mexico.
1530s. Treadle looms imported into Mexico.
mid 1530s. Brazil divided into captaincies.
1532. Vasco de Quiroga's first hospital, Santa Fe de los Altos,founded near Mexico City. Settlement at São Vicente (Brazil) by Martim Afonso de Sousa; settlement also inland, at Piratininga.
1532-6. Francisco Pizarro conquers the Incas .
1535. Arrival in Mexico of the first, and founding, viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza.
1537. First Peruvian see created, at Cuzco.
1538. Foundation of Santa Fe de Bogotá.
1538. Audiencia placed at City of Panama (re-established 1564).
1538. Probable date of first shipment of African slaves to Brazil.
c.1540. First sugar mills built in Peru.
1540. Cortés returns to Spain from Mexico.
1541. Foundation of Santiago de Chile; permanent Spanish settlement of Chile begins.
1541. Assassination of Francisco Pizarro in Lima by Almagrists. See of Lima created.
1542. Promulgation of the New Laws, reforming Spanish government in America, and controlling the encomienda. Permanent foundation of Guadalajara, in western Mexico.
1543. Audiencias established in Lima and Guatemala.
1544. First viceroy, Blasco Núñez Vela, arrives in Peru. Revolt of Peruvian colonists, under Gonzalo Pizarro, begins.
1545-64. Council of Trent.
1545. Silver ores found at Potosí.
1546. Silver ores found at Zacatecas: start of mining in northern Mexico.
1547. Death of Cortés in Spain. Audiencia established at Guadalajara. Grammar of Nahuatl, the first of a Mexican language, produced by Andrés de Olmos, O.F.M.
1548. Defeat and execution of Gonzalo Pizarro: end of Peruvian rebellion against royal rule. See of Guadalajara created.
1548-9. Tomé de Sousa appointed and installed as governor general of Brazil; foundation of town of Salvador (Bahia) as capital; arrival of Jesuits; appointment of first ouvidor geral.
1548-50. Government of Peru by Pedro de la Gasca.
1549. Royal ban on servicio personal by Indians (i.e. the use of Indians in encomienda for labor).

1550

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1550. Debate between Las Casas and Sepúlveda at Valladolid in Spain.
c.1550. Beginning, in Mexico, of state-imposed draft labor by Indians.
c.1555. Beginning of silver refining by amalgamation in Mexico.
1555-67. French colony of "Antarctic France" at Rio de Janeiro.
1556. Abdication of Charles V (died 1558). Accession to Spanish throne of Philip II.
1557-72. Governorship of Mem de Sá.
1559. Audiencia established at La Plata.
1559. Beginning of royally-approved sale of office (notarial positions) in Spanish America.
1560s. First serious epidemics of Old World diseases in Brazil.
1563. Audiencia established at Quito.
1565. Northerly return route from east Asia to America found by Andrés de Urdaneta.
1566. Death of Las Casas.
1566. Beginning of Dutch revolt against Spanish rule.
1568. First Jesuits in Spanish America, at Lima.
1569-81. Administration of Don Francisco de Toledo, fifth, but "founding," viceroy of Peru.
1570. Indians declared free by Sebastião, king of Portugal.
1570-1. Tribunals of the Inquisition set up in Lima (1570) and Mexico City (1571).
1571. Silver refining by amalgamation begins at Potosí.
1573. Ordinances for New Discovery and Settlement.
1574. Ordinance of Patronage (Ordenanza del Patronazgo).
1575. Approximate starting date of period of roughly fifty years of close Spanish control of the major American colonies
1576-1617. Life of Isabel Flores de Oliva (Santa Rosa de Lima).
1578. Death of King Sebastião at Alcácer Quibir
1580-1640. Portugal and its empire under Spanish rule.
1583. Audiencia established at Manila.
1588. Defeat of the Spanish Armada sent against England.
1590s. Rise of foreign incursions into the Caribbean.
late 1590s. First Dutch settlers on Guiana coast of South America.
1598. Death of Philip II of Spain. Accession of Philip III.

1600
1600s (i.e. 17th century): rise of creole numbers, and creole participation in colonial affairs and government; growing weakness (economic, military, political) of Spain itself (though Spanish arts and literature flourish in the 'Golden Age', lasting u ntil almost 1700); growing economic and administrative independence of the colonies; native populations in most regions begin to recover from declines in the 1500s; foreigners (French, Dutch, and English) begin to press on edges of the Spanish empire, p articularly in the Caribbean. Dutch occupation of north-east Brazil, 1630-54.

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c. 1600. Beginning of slave-raiding bandeiras from São Paulo.
1606. Royal decree permitting purchase of almost all local offices. Beginning of silver boom at Oruro (lasting until c.1630).
1606. Founding of first Brazilian relação, at Salvador.
1609-21. Truce between Spain and the Dutch.
1610. First Jesuits reductions (missions) among Guaraní in Paraguay.
c.1610. Three-roller sugar mill introduced into Brazil.
c.1611-c.1681. Life of Diego Quispe Tito, prime early painter of the Cuzco school.
1615. French finally driven away from Brazil.
1621. Death of Philip III of Spain. Accession of Philip IV. Foundation of Dutch West India Company.
1621. Maranhão declared a separate "state" of Portuguese America. Dutch West India Company founded.
1624. English seize St Kitt's in Leeward Islands.
1628. Piet Heyn captures a Spanish treasure fleet off Cape Matanzas (Cuba).
1630. Dutch capture of Recife: beginning of Dutch occupation of north east Brazil.
1633. Beginning of sale of fiscal offices in Spanish America.
1634. Dutch seize Curaçao.
1635. French seize Martinique and Guadeloupe.
1637-9. Expedition of Pedro Teixeira from northern Brazil to Quito and back: Brazil's boundary extended far westward.
1637-44. Brazilian administration of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen.
1640. Portuguese revolt against Spanish rule.
c.1640. Beginning of large-scale sugar planting in non-Spanish Caribbean islands.
1648?-95. Life of Juana Ramírez de Asbaje (Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz).
1649. General Brazil Trading Company founded.

1650

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1650-1700. Large inland movement of cattle in Brazil.
1654. Dutch leave Brazil.
1655. English seize Jamaica.
1660s. English settlement of mouth of Belize river.
1661. Revolt of citizens of São Luís against Jesuits.
1665. Death of Philip IV of Spain. Accession of Charles II. France sends official governor to Tortuga island: beginning of colony of St. Domingue, later Haiti.
1669. Fortress built at São José de Rio Negro, at confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers.
1677. Sale of corregimientos and alcaldías mayores permitted.
1680-93. Revolt of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico.
1687. Audiencia offices put up for sale. mid-1690s.
Gold found in Minas Gerais.

1700

1700s (i.e. eighteenth century): continued decline of Spain, now under heavy French political influence (as a result of replacement of Hapsburg royal dynasty by the French Bourbons in 1701); Spain consequently often drawn, behind France, into wars wi th England; in Spanish and Portuguese America, a 'century of reform' (or at least attempted reform), as Spain and Portugal try to tighten their control of the American colonies; pace of attempted reform (stricter administration, more efficient tax collection, redirection of trade towards Spain and Portugal), accelerates from 1770 onward; consequent resentment among creoles and other parts of the colonial populations feeds into movements for Independence after 1800.

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1700. Death of Charles II, final Hapsburg ruler of Spain.
1701. Accession of Philip V, first Bourbon king of Spain.
1701-14. War of the Spanish Succession.
1703. Methuen Treaty.
c.1710. Zacatecas overtakes Potosí in silver production.
1712-13. Peace of Utrecht.
1714. Ministry of the Indies created by Philip V.
1717. Casa de Contratación moved from Seville to Cadiz
1720. Captaincy of Minas Gerais created. Abolition of General Brazil Trading Company. Chief executive in Brazil henceforth termed viceroy.
1720s. Diamonds found in Minas Gerais.
1724. Founding of the Academy of the Forgotten (Academia Brasílica dos Esquecidos) at Salvador, first of several Brazilian intellectual academies of the the eighteenth century.
1728. Caracas (or Guipúzcoa) Company founded in Spain.
1730. Mestizo-led rising at Cochabamba.
1739. Viceroyalty of New Granada established.
1739. Rising at Oruro, opposing tax increases.
1739-48. Wars of Jenkins' Ear and of Austrian Succession.
1742. Beginning of Juan Santos Atahualpa's rising in Peruvian Andes.
1743. New System of Economic Government of America, by José del Campillo y Cossío.
1744. Captaincy of Goiás created.
1746. Our Lady of Guadalupe proclaimed patroness of New Spain. Death of Philip V. Accession of Ferdinand VI.
1748. Last sailing of galeones to Isthmus of Panama.
1748. Captaincy of Mato Grosso created.

1750

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1752. Relação of Rio de Janeiro created.
1755. Lisbon earthquake. Beginning of the reform program of the Marquis of Pombal: creation of Board of Trade, and of Pará and Maranhão Company.
1756-63. Seven Years' War.
1759. Death of Ferdinand VI. Accession of Charles III.
1759. Creation of Pernambuco and Paraíba Company. Jesuits expelled from Portuguese territories.
1763. Peace of Paris.
1763. Capital of Brazil shifted from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
1764. First American ports opened to single ship trade. First intendant placed in America (Cuba).
1765. Rising in Quito against growing fiscal pressure.
1765-71. José de Gálvez's inspection of New Spain.
1767. Expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories.
1775-83. War of American Independence.
1776. Last flota sails to New Spain. Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata established.
1777. Arrival in Peru of José Antonio de Areche as general inspector.
1777. Fall of Pombal.
1778. "Regulations and Royal Tariffs for Free Trade between Spain and America" promulgated.
1778. Treaty of San Ildefonso, fixing southern boundaries of Brazil.
1778. Birth of José de San Martín.
1778-9. The Inconfidência Mineira in Brazil (Tiradentes' plot).
1780-81. Revolt led by Túpac Amaru II in Peruvian Andes. Clavijero's Ancient History of Mexico.
1781. Siege of La Paz (Bolivia) by Túpac Katari. Comunero revolt in New Granada.
1783. Birth of Simón Bolívar.
1785. Foundation of the Academia de San Carlos (of fine arts) in Mexico City.
1787-8. Audiencia established at Cuzco.
1788. Death of Charles III. Accession of Charles IV.
1790-1873. Life of José Antonio Páez, caudillo in Venezuela.
1791. Slave revolt in Saint Domingue (Haiti).
1793-1877. Life of Juan Manuel de Rosas, caudillo in Río de la Plata.
1794-1876. Life of Antonio López de Santa Anna, caudillo in Mexico.
1795. Peace of Basle between France and Spain.
1797. Spain forced to allow colonies to trade with neutral countries.
1798. "Tailors' Plot" in Salvador.

1800

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1803. Louisiana sold by Napoleon Bonaparte to the United States.
1804. Seizure by the crown of the church's obras pías in America.
1805. French-Spanish naval defeat at Trafalgar by Britain.
1806. Miranda tries, and fails, to start rebellion in Venezuela.
1807. Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal.
1808. Abdication of Charles IV of Spain. Accession, exile, and abdication of Ferdinand VII. French occupation of Spain. Joseph I placed on Spanish throne by Napoleon. British expeditionary force sent to Spain. Emergence of Spanish national junta. V iceroy deposed in New Spain by Audiencia of Mexico. Arrival of Portuguese royal family in Rio de Janeiro
1809. Risings in Buenos Aires and Quito.
1809-10. Independence declared in La Paz (Bolivia), but quickly suppressed by Spanish forces.
1810. Declarations of self-government in Caracas, Santiago de Chile, and Buenos Aires (effective permanent independence of Río de la Plata). Viceroy deposed in New Granada. Return of Miranda to Venezuela. In Mexico, the "Grito de Dolo res," and multiple risings in the north. Treaty of Navigation and Commerce between Great Britain and government in Brazil.
1810-14. Deliberations of Cortes (Parliament) of Cadiz.
1811. Defeat, and execution, of Hidalgo in Mexico. Effective achievement of independence by Paraguay. French expelled from Portugal.
1812. Constitution of Cadiz.
1813. French expelled from Spain. Morelos captures Acapulco.
1814. Ferdinand restored to Spanish throne. First Mexican constitution issued, at Apatzingán.
1815. Final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. Execution of Morelos. Brazil raised to status of kingdom, constitutionally equal with Portugal.
1816. Death of Miranda.
1817. Battle of Chacabuco. Republic of Pernambuco briefly declared in Brazil.
1818. Battle of Maipú. Independence of Chile.
1819. Battle of Boyacá. Independence of Colombia.
1820. San Martín lands on Peruvian coast, at Pisco. Military revolt in Spain, and restoration there of liberal constitution of 1812. In Portugal, military revolt, adoption of Spanish constitution of 1812, and declaration of constitutional mo narchy.
1821. Battle of Carabobo. Independence of Venezuela. San Martín named Protector of Peru. Plan of Iguala in Mexico, and subsequent independence. Return of John VI from Brazil to Portugal.
1822. Battle of Pichincha. Independence of Ecuador. Confidential meeting of Bolívar and San Martín at Guayaquil, and San Martín's withdrawal from the independence movement. In Brazil, proclamation of Peter I as emperor, and independence.
1823. Enunciation of Monroe Doctrine.
1824. Battles of Junín and Ayacucho. Independence of Peru. Federalist constitution in Mexico, and beginning of first federalist republic (ended 1836). Centralist, monarchical constitution in Brazil. Unsuccessful separatist movement in Pernambuco.
1825. Independence of Bolivia (end of Spanish dominion in South America).  

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